Bastille Day

Bastille Day

Bastille Day is the common name given in English-speaking countries to the national day of France, which is celebrated on 14 July each year. In French, it is formally called Fête nationale (French: [fɛt nɑsjɔnal]; “National Celebration”) and commonly and legally le 14 juillet (French: [lə katɔʁz(ə) ʒɥijɛ]; “the 14th of July”).[3]

The French National Day is the anniversary of the Storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789,[1][2] a major event of the French Revolution,[4] as well as the Fête de la Fédération that celebrated the unity of the French people on 14 July 1790. Celebrations are held throughout France. One that has been reported as “the oldest and largest military parade in Europe”[5] is held on 14 July on the Champs-Élysées in Paris in front of the President of the Republic, along with other French officials and foreign guests.[6][7]

History

In 1789, tensions rose in France between reformist and conservative factions as the country struggled to resolve an economic crisis. In May, the Estates General legislative assembly was revived, but members of the Third Estate broke ranks, declaring themselves to be the National Assembly of the country, and on 20 June, vowed to write a constitution for the kingdom.

On 11 July Jacques Necker, the Finance Minister of Louis XVI, who was sympathetic to the Third Estate, was dismissed by the king, provoking an angry reaction among Parisians. Crowds formed, fearful of an attack by the royal army or by foreign regiments of mercenaries in the king’s service, and seeking to arm the general populace. Early on 14 July one crowd besieged the Hôtel des Invalides for firearms, muskets, and cannons, stored in its cellars.[8] That same day, another crowd stormed the Bastille, a fortress-prison in Paris that had historically held people jailed on the basis of lettres de cachet (literally “signet letters”), arbitrary royal indictments that could not be appealed and did not indicate the reason for the imprisonment, and was believed to hold a cache of ammunition and gunpowder. As it happened, at the time of the attack, the Bastille held only seven inmates, none of great political significance.[9]

The crowd was eventually reinforced by mutinous Régiment des Gardes Françaises (“French Guards”), whose usual role was to protect public buildings. They proved a fair match for the fort’s defenders, and Governor de Launay, the commander of the Bastille, capitulated and opened the gates to avoid a mutual massacre. According to the official documents, about 200 attackers and just one defender died before the capitulation. However, possibly because of a misunderstanding, fighting resumed. In this second round of fighting, de Launay and seven other defenders were killed, as was Jacques de Flesselles, the prévôt des marchands (“provost of the merchants”), the elected head of the city’s guilds, who under the feudal monarchy also had the competences of a present-day mayor.[10]

Shortly after the storming of the Bastille, late in the evening of 4 August, after a very stormy session of the Assemblée constituante, feudalism was abolished. On 26 August, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (Déclaration des Droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen) was proclaimed.[11]

Fête de la Fédération

As early as 1789, the year of the storming of the Bastille, preliminary designs for a national festival were underway. These designs were intended to strengthen the country’s national identity through the celebration of the events of 14 July 1789.[12] One of the first designs was proposed by Clément Gonchon, a French textile worker, who presented his design for a festival celebrating the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille to the French city administration and the public on 9 December 1789.[13] There were other proposals and unofficial celebrations of 14 July 1789, but the official festival sponsored by the National Assembly was called the Fête de la Fédération.[14]

The Fête de la Fédération on 14 July 1790 was a celebration of the unity of the French nation during the French Revolution. The aim of this celebration, one year after the Storming of the Bastille, was to symbolize peace. The event took place on the Champ de Mars, which was located far outside of Paris at the time. The work needed to transform the Champ de Mars into a suitable location for the celebration was not on schedule to be completed in time. On the day recalled as the Journée des brouettes (“The Day of the Wheelbarrow”), thousands of Parisian citizens gathered together to finish the construction needed for the celebration.[15]

The day of the festival, the National Guard assembled and proceeded along the boulevard du Temple in the pouring rain, and were met by an estimated 260,000 Parisian citizens at the Champ de Mars.[16] A mass was celebrated by Talleyrand, bishop of Autun. The popular General Lafayette, as captain of the National Guard of Paris and a confidant of the king, took his oath to the constitution, followed by King Louis XVI. After the end of the official celebration, the day ended in a huge four-day popular feast, and people celebrated with fireworks, as well as fine wine and running nude through the streets in order to display their great freedom.[17]

By Yann Caradec from Paris, France – Feu d’artifice du 14 juillet 2017 depuis le champ de Mars à Paris, devant la Tour Eiffel, Bastille day 2017, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=61588681

Origin of the current celebration

On 30 June 1878, a feast was officially arranged in Paris to honour the French Republic (the event was commemorated in a painting by Claude Monet).[18] On 14 July 1879, there was another feast, with a semi-official aspect. The day’s events included a reception in the Chamber of Deputies, organised and presided over by Léon Gambetta,[19] a military review at Longchamp, and a Republican Feast in the Pré Catelan.[20] All through France, Le Figaro wrote, “people feasted much to honour the storming of the Bastille”.[21]

In 1880, the government of the Third Republic wanted to revive the 14 July festival. The campaign for the reinstatement of the festival had been underway for nearly a decade, sponsored by the notable politician Léon Gambetta and scholar Henri Baudrillant.[22] On 21 May 1880, Benjamin Raspail proposed a law, signed by sixty-four members of government, to have “the Republic adopt 14 July as the day of an annual national festival”. There were many disputes over which date to be remembered as the national holiday, including 4 August (the commemoration of the end of the feudal system), 5 May (when the Estates-General first assembled), 27 July (the fall of Robespierre), and 21 January (the date of Louis XVI’s execution).[23] The government decided that the date of the holiday would be 14 July, but it was still somewhat problematic. The events of 14 July 1789 were illegal under the previous government, which contradicted the Third Republic’s need to establish legal legitimacy.[24] French politicians also did not want the sole foundation of their national holiday to be rooted in a day of bloodshed and class-hatred as the day of storming the Bastille was. Instead, they based the establishment of the holiday as a dual celebration of the Fête de la Fédération, a festival celebrating the first anniversary of 14 July 1789, and the storming of the Bastille.[25] The Assembly voted in favor of the proposal on 21 May and 8 June, and the law was approved on 27 and 29 June. The law was made official on 6 July 1880.[citation needed]

In the debate leading up to the adoption of the holiday, Senator Henri Martin, who wrote the National Day law,[25] addressed the chamber on 29 June 1880:

Do not forget that behind this 14 July, where victory of the new era over the Ancien Régime was bought by fighting, do not forget that after the day of 14 July 1789, there was the day of 14 July 1790 (…) This [latter] day cannot be blamed for having shed a drop of blood, for having divided the country. It was the consecration of the unity of France (…) If some of you might have scruples against the first 14 July, they certainly hold none against the second. Whatever difference which might part us, something hovers over them, it is the great images of national unity, which we all desire, for which we would all stand, willing to die if necessary.

— Henri Martin, 1880[26]

Bastille Day military parade

The Bastille Day military parade is the French military parade that has been held in the morning, each year in Paris since 1880. While previously held elsewhere within or near the capital city, since 1918 it has been held on the Champs-Élysées, with the participation of the Allies as represented in the Versailles Peace Conference, and with the exception of the period of German occupation from 1940 to 1944 (when the ceremony took place in London under the command of General Charles de Gaulle); and 2020 when the COVID-19 pandemic forced its cancellation.[27] The parade passes down the Champs-Élysées from the Arc de Triomphe to the Place de la Concorde, where the President of the French Republic, his government and foreign ambassadors to France stand. This is a popular event in France, broadcast on French TV, and is the oldest and largest regular military parade in Europe.[6][7] In some years, invited detachments of foreign troops take part in the parade and foreign statesmen attend as guests[citation needed]

Smaller military parades are held in French garrison towns, including Toulon and Belfort, with local troops.

Bastille Day celebrations in other countries

Belgium
Liège celebrates the Bastille Day each year since the end of the First World War, as Liège was decorated by the Légion d’Honneur for its unexpected resistance during the Battle of Liège.[28] The city also hosts a fireworks show outside of Congress Hall. Specifically in Liège, celebrations of Bastille Day have been known to be bigger than the celebrations of the Belgian National holiday.[29] Around 35,000 people gather to celebrate Bastille Day. There is a traditional festival dance of the French consul that draws large crowds, and many unofficial events over the city celebrate the relationship between France and the city of Liège.[30]

Canada
Vancouver, British Columbia holds a celebration featuring exhibits, food and entertainment.[31] The Toronto Bastille Day festival is also celebrated in Toronto, Ontario. The festival is organized by the French community in Toronto and sponsored by the Consulate General of France. The celebration includes music, performances, sport competitions, and a French Market. At the end of the festival, there is also a traditional French bal populaire.[32]

Czech Republic
Since 2008, Prague has hosted a French market “Le marché du 14 juillet” (“Fourteenth of July Market”) offering traditional French food and wine as well as music. The market takes place on Kampa Island, it is usually between 11 and 14 July.[33] It acts as an event that marks the relinquish of the EU presidency from France to the Czech Republic. Traditional selections of French produce, including cheese, wine, meat, bread and pastries, are provided by the market. Throughout the event, live music is played in the evenings, with lanterns lighting up the square at night.[34]

Bastille Day fireworks in Budapest, Hungary
Hungary
Budapest’s two-day celebration is sponsored by the Institut de France.[35] The festival is hosted along the Danube River, with streets filled with music and dancing. There are also local markets dedicated to French foods and wine, mixed with some traditional Hungarian specialties. At the end of the celebration, a fireworks show is held on the river banks.[36]

India
Bastille Day is celebrated with great festivity in Pondicherry, a former French colony, every year.[37] On the eve of the Bastille Day, retired soldiers parade and celebrate the day with Indian and French National Anthems, honoring the French soldiers who were killed in the battles. Throughout the celebration, French and Indian flags fly alongside each other, projecting the mingling of cultures and heritages.[38]

Ireland
The Embassy of France in Ireland organizes several events around Dublin, Cork and Limerick for Bastille Day; including evenings of French music and tasting of French food. Many members of the French community in Ireland take part in the festivities.[39] Events in Dublin include live entertainment, speciality menus on French cuisine, and screenings of popular French films.[40]

New Zealand
The Auckland suburb of Remuera hosts an annual French-themed Bastille Day street festival.[41] Visitors enjoy mimes, dancers, music, as well as French foods and drinks. The budding relationship between the two countries, with the establishment of a Maori garden in France and exchange of their analyses of cave art, resulted in the creation of an official reception at the Residence of France. There is also an event in Wellington for the French community held at the Residence of France.[34]

South Africa
Franschhoek’s weekend festival[42] has been celebrated since 1993. (Franschhoek, or ‘French Corner,’ is situated in the Western Cape.) As South Africa’s gourmet capital, French food, wine and other entertainment is provided throughout the festival. The French Consulate in South Africa also celebrates their national holiday with a party for the French community.[34] Activities also include dressing up in different items of French clothing.[43]

French Polynesia
Following colonial rule, France annexed a large portion of what is now French Polynesia. Under French rule, Tahitians were permitted to participate in sport, singing, and dancing competitions one day a year: Bastille Day.[44] The single day of celebration evolved into the major Heiva i Tahiti festival in Papeete Tahiti, where traditional events such as canoe races, tattooing, and fire walks are held. The singing and dancing competitions continued, with music composed with traditional instruments such as a nasal flute and ukulele.[34]

United Kingdom
Within England, London has a large French contingent, and celebrates Bastille Day at various locations across the city including Battersea Park, Camden Town and Kentish Town.[45] Live entertainment is performed at Canary Wharf, with weeklong performances of French theatre at the Lion and Unicorn Theatre in Kentish Town. Restaurants feature cabarets and special menus across the city, and other celebrations include garden parties and sports tournaments. There is also a large event at the Bankside and Borough Market, where there is live music, street performers, and traditional French games are played.[34]

United States
The United States has over 20 cities that conduct annual celebrations of Bastille Day. The different cities celebrate with many French staples such as food, music, games, and sometimes the recreation of famous French landmarks.[46]

Northeastern States
Baltimore, Maryland, has a large Bastille Day celebration each year at Petit Louis in the Roland Park area of Baltimore City. Boston has a celebration annually, hosted by the French Cultural Center for 40 years. The street festival occurs in Boston’s Back Bay neighborhood, near the Cultural Center’s headquarters. The celebration includes francophone musical performers, dancing, and French cuisine.[47] New York City has numerous Bastille Day celebrations each July, including Bastille Day on 60th Street hosted by the French Institute Alliance Française between Fifth and Lexington Avenues on the Upper East Side of Manhattan,[48] Bastille Day on Smith Street in Brooklyn, and Bastille Day in Tribeca. There is also the annual Bastille Day Ball, taking place since 1924.[46] Philadelphia’s Bastille Day, held at Eastern State Penitentiary, involves Marie Antoinette throwing locally manufactured Tastykakes at the Parisian militia, as well as a re-enactment of the storming of the Bastille.[47] (This Philadelphia tradition ended in 2018.[49]) In Newport, Rhode Island, the annual Bastille Day celebration is organized by the local chapter of the Alliance Française. It takes place at King Park in Newport at the monument memorializing the accomplishments of the General Comte de Rochambeau whose 6,000 to 7,000 French forces landed in Newport on 11 July 1780. Their assistance in the defeat of the English in the War of Independence is well documented and is demonstrable proof of the special relationship between France and the United States.[citation needed]

Southern States
In Dallas, Texas, the Bastille Day celebration, “Bastille On Bishop”, began in 2010 and is held annually in the Bishop Arts District of the North Oak Cliff neighborhood, southwest of downtown just across the Trinity River. Dallas’ French roots are tied to the short lived socialist Utopian community La Réunion, formed in 1855 and incorporated into the City of Dallas in 1860.[50] Miami’s celebration is organized by “French & Famous” in partnership with the French American Chamber of Commerce, the Union des Français de l’Etranger and many French brands. The event gathers over 1,000 attendees to celebrate “La Fête Nationale”. The location and theme change every year. In 2017, the theme was “Guinguette Party” and attracted 1,200 francophiles at The River Yacht Club.[51] New Orleans, Louisiana, has multiple celebrations, the largest in the historic French Quarter.[52] St. Louis, Missouri, has annual festivals in the Soulard neighborhood, the former French village of Carondelet, Missouri, and in the Benton Park neighborhood. The Chatillon-DeMenil Mansion in the Benton Park neighborhood, holds an annual Bastille Day festival with reenactments of the beheading of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI, traditional dancing, and artillery demonstrations. Carondelet also began hosting an annual saloon crawl to celebrate Bastille Day in 2017.[53] In Washington D.C., food, music, and auction events are sponsored by the Embassy of France. There is also a French Festival within the city, where families can meet period entertainment groups set during the time of the French Revolution. Restaurants host parties serving traditional French food.[46] In Austin, Texas, the Alliance Française d’Austin usually conducts a family-friendly Bastille Day party at the French Legation, the home of the French representative to the Republic of Texas from 1841 to 1845.[citation needed]

Midwestern States
Chicago, Illinois, has hosted a variety of Bastille Day celebrations in a number of locations in the city, including Navy Pier and Oz Park. The recent incarnations have been sponsored in part by the Chicago branch of the French-American Chamber of Commerce and by the French Consulate-General in Chicago.[54] Milwaukee’s four-day street festival begins with a “Storming of the Bastille” with a 43-foot replica of the Eiffel Tower.[55] Minneapolis, Minnesota, has a celebration with wine, French food, pastries, a flea market, circus performers and bands. Also in the Twin Cities area, the local chapter of the Alliance Française has hosted an annual event for years at varying locations with a competition for the “Best Baguette of the Twin Cities.”[56][57] Montgomery, Ohio, has a celebration with wine, beer, local restaurants’ fare, pastries, games and bands.[58]

Western States
Portland, Oregon, has celebrated Bastille Day with crowds up to 8,000, in public festivals at various public parks, since 2001. The event is coordinated by the Alliance Française of Portland.[59] Seattle’s Bastille Day celebration, held at the Seattle Center, involves performances, picnics, wine and shopping.[60] Sacramento, California, conducts annual “waiter races” in the midtown restaurant and shopping district, with a street festival.[61]

References

  1.  “Bastille Day – 14th July”Official Website of France. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. A national celebration, a re-enactment of the storming of the Bastille … Commemorating the storming of the Bastille on 14th July 1789, Bastille Day takes place on the same date each year. The main event is a grand military parade along the Champs-Élysées, attended by the President of the Republic and other political leaders. It is accompanied by fireworks and public dances in towns throughout the whole of France.
  2. Jump up to:a b “La fête nationale du 14 juillet”Official Website of Elysée.
  3. ^ Article L. 3133-3 of French labour code on http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr.
  4. ^ “The Beginning of the French Revolution, 1789”EyeWitness to HistoryThomas Jefferson was America’s minister to France in 1789. As tensions grew and violence erupted, Jefferson traveled to Versailles and Paris to observe events first-hand. He reported his experience in a series of letters to America’s Secretary of State, John Jay. We join Jefferson’s story as tensions escalate to violence on July 12: 
    July 12 
    In the afternoon a body of about 100 German cavalry were advanced and drawn up in the Palace Louis XV. and about 300 Swiss posted at a little distance in their rear. This drew people to that spot, who naturally formed themselves in front of the troops, at first merely to look at them. But as their numbers increased their indignation arose: they retired a few steps, posted themselves on and behind large piles of loose stone collected in that Place for a bridge adjacent to it, and attacked the horse with stones. The horse charged, but the advantageous position of the people, and the showers of stones obliged them to retire, and even to quit the field altogether, leaving one of their number on the ground. The Swiss in their rear were observed never to stir. This was the signal for universal insurrection, and this body of cavalry, to avoid being massacred, retired towards Versailles. 
    The people now armed themselves with such weapons as they could find in Armourer’s shops and private houses, and with bludgeons, and were roaming all night through all parts of the city without any decided and practicable object.
    July 13 
    …A Committee of magistrates and electors of the city are appointed, by their bodies, to take upon them its government. 
    The mob, now openly joined by the French guards, force the prisons of St. Lazare, release all the prisoners, and take a great store of corn, which they carry to the corn market. Here they get some arms, and the French guards begin to form and train them. The City committee determines to raise 48,000 Bourgeois, or rather to restrain their numbers to 48,000.’
  5. ^ “France commemorates WWI centenary on Bastille Day”France 24. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  6. Jump up to:a b “Champs-Élysées city visit in Paris, France – Recommended city visit of Champs-Élysées in Paris”. Paris.com. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  7. Jump up to:a b “Celebrate Bastille Day in Paris This Year”. Paris Attractions. 3 May 2011. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  8. ^ What Actually Happened on the Original Bastille Day
  9. ^ G A Chevallaz, Histoire générale de 1789 à nos jours, p. 22, Payot, Lausanne 1974
  10. ^ J Isaac, L’époque révolutionnaire 1789–1851, p. 60, Hachette, Paris 1950
  11. ^ J Isaac, L’époque révolutionnaire 1789–1851, p. 64, Hachette, Paris 1950.
  12. ^ Lüsebrink, Hans-Jürgen (1997). The Bastille: A History of a Symbol of Despotism and Freedom. Duke Press University. p. 151. ISBN 9780822382751.
  13. ^ Lüsebrink, Hans-Jürgen; Reichardt, Rolf (1997). The Bastille: A History of a Symbol of Despotism and Freedom. Duke University Press. p. 152. ISBN 9780822382751.
  14. ^ Lüsebrink, Hans-Jürgen; Reichardt, Rolf (1997). The Bastille: A History of a Symbol of Despotism and Freedom. Duke University Press. p. 153. ISBN 9780822382751.
  15. ^ Prendergast, Christopher (2008). The Fourteenth of July. Profile Books Ltd. pp. 105–106ISBN 9781861979391.
  16. ^ Prendergast, Christopher (2008). The Fourteenth of July. Profile Books Ltd. pp. 106–107ISBN 9781861979391.
  17. ^ Gottschalk, Louis Reichenthal (1973). Lafayette in the French Revolution. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-30547-3.
  18. ^ Adamson, Natalie (15 August 2009). Painting, politics and the struggle for the École de Paris, 1944–1964. Ashgate. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-7546-5928-0. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  19. ^ Nord, Philip G. (2000). Impressionists and politics: art and democracy in the nineteenth century. Psychology Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-415-20695-2. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  20. ^ Nord, Philip G. (1995). The republican moment: struggles for democracy in nineteenth-century France. Harvard University Press. p. 205ISBN 978-0-674-76271-8. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  21. ^ “Paris Au Jour Le Jour”Le Figaro. 16 July 1879. p. 4. Retrieved 15 January 2013. On a beaucoup banqueté avant-hier, en mémoire de la prise de la Bastille, et comme tout banquet suppose un ou plusieurs discours, on a aussi beaucoup parlé.
  22. ^ Prendergast, Christopher (2008). The Fourteenth of July. Profile Books Ltd. pp. 127ISBN 9781861979391.
  23. ^ Prendergast, Christopher (2008). The Fourteenth of July. Profile Books Ltd. pp. 129ISBN 9781861979391.
  24. ^ Prendergast, Christopher (2008). The Fourteenth of July. Profile Books Ltd. pp. 130ISBN 9781861979391.
  25. Jump up to:a b Schofield, Hugh (14 July 2013). “Bastille Day: How peace and revolution got mixed up”BBC News.
  26. ^ Le Quatorze Juillet at the Greeting Card Universe Blog
  27. ^ Défilé du 14 juillet, des origines à nos jours Archived 24 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine (14 July Parade, from its origins to the present)
  28. ^ “Travel Picks: Top 10 Bastille Day celebrations”Reuters. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  29. ^ “Bastille Day: world celebrations”The Telegraph. 12 July 2012.
  30. ^ “An unusual Bastille Day: in Liège, Belgium”Eurofluence. 19 July 2014.
  31. ^ “Bastille Day Festival Vancouver”Bastille Day Festival Vancouver. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  32. ^ “Toronto Bastille Day”French Street.
  33. ^ “French Market at Kampa – Le marché du 14 Juillet”Prague.eu. Archived from the original on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  34. Jump up to:a b c d e Trumper, David (11 July 2014). “7 places outside France where Bastille Day is celebrated”WorldFirst.
  35. ^ “Bastille Day 2007 – Budapest”. Budapestresources.com. 14 July 2011. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  36. ^ “Travel Picks: Top 10 Bastille Day celebrations”Reuters. 13 July 2012.
  37. ^ “Puducherry Culture”. Government of Puducherry. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  38. ^ Miner Murray, Meghan (12 July 2019). “9 Bastille Day bashes that celebrate French culture”National Geographic.
  39. ^ “Bastille Day 2018”. French Embassy in Ireland. Archived from the original on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  40. ^ “July 14th Bastille Day Celebrations in Dublin”Babylon Radio. 14 July 2016.
  41. ^ “Array”Remuera Business Association.
  42. ^ “Bastille Day Festival at Franschhoek”. Franschhoek.co.za. Archivedfrom the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  43. ^ “Bastille Day is celebrated across the world and in Franchhoek, South Africa”South African History Online. 12 November 2017.
  44. ^ “The Best Festival You’ve Never Heard Of: The Heiva in Tahiti”X Days in Y. 7 July 2017.
  45. ^ “Bastille Day London – Bastille Day Events in London, Bastille Day 2011”. Viewlondon.co.uk. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  46. Jump up to:a b c “Where to Celebrate Bastille Day in the United States?”France-Amérique. 6 July 2017.
  47. Jump up to:a b “Bastille Day: world celebrations”The Telegraph. 4 February 2016. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  48. ^ “Bastille Day on 60th Street, New York City, Sunday, July 15, 2012 | 12–5pm | Fifth Avenue to Lexington Avenue”. Bastilledayny.com. 10 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  49. ^ “Bastille Day 2018: The Farewell Tour”. Eastern State Penitentiary. 7 June 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  50. ^ “Bastille on Bishop”. Go Oak Cliff. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  51. ^ “Le 14 juillet à Miami : Bastille Day Party de “French & Famous” !”Le Courrier de Floride (in French). 26 June 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  52. ^ Carr, Martha (13 July 2009). “Only in New Orleans: Watch locals celebrate Bastille Day in the French Quarter”The Times-Picayune. Retrieved 27 July2011.
  53. ^ “Bastille Day”Chatillon-DeMenil Mansion. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  54. ^ “Bastille Day Chicago”. Consulate General of France. Retrieved 13 July2018.
  55. ^ “Bastille Days | Milwaukee, WI”. East Town Association. 12 July 2014. Archived from the original on 26 February 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
  56. ^ “2009 Bastille Day Celebration – Alliance Française, Minneapolis”Yelp. 11 July 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  57. ^ “Bastille Day celebrations, 2011”Consulat Général de France à Chicago. 14 July 2011. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  58. ^ “Bastille Day Celebration!”City of Montgomery, Ohio. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  59. ^ “Bastille Day July 14 at Jamison Square”. Alliance Française de Portland. Archived from the original on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  60. ^ “Bastille Day celebration – Alliance Française de Seattle”Alliance Française de Seattle. Bastille Day celebration. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  61. ^ “Waiters’ Race & Street Festival”Sacramento Bastille Day. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  62. ^ Yelton, Geary (10 April 2017). “On Tour with Jean-Michel Jarre”Keyboard. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  63. ^ Longworth, R.C. (15 July 1989). “French Shoot The Works With Soaring Bicentennial French”Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  64. ^ “Paris La Défense – Jean-Michel Jarre | Official Site”jeanmicheljarre.com. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  65. ^ Kraft, Scott (15 July 1994). “German Troops Join Bastille Day Parade in Paris”Los Angeles TimesISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  66. ^ “Concert For Tolerance”Jean-Michel Jarre Official Site. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  67. ^ Young, Chris (8 June 2014). “World Cup: Remembering the giddiness and glory of France ’98”The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  68. ^ Broughton, Philip Delves (14 July 2004). “Best of British lead the way in parade for Bastille Day”The TelegraphISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  69. ^ “The 14th of July : Bastille Day”French Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  70. ^ “Bastille Day in pictures: Soldiers from 76 countries march down Champs-Elysees”The Telegraph. 14 July 2014. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  71. ^ Breeden, Aurelien (27 June 2017). “Macron Invites Trump to Paris for Bastille Day”The New York Times. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  72. ^ “No Military Parade For Trump In D.C. This Year; Pentagon Looking At Dates In 2019”NPR.orgArchived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  73. ^ Juliet Eilperin, Josh Dawsey and Dan Lamothe (1 July 2019). “Trump asks for tanks, Marine One and much more for grandiose July Fourth event”The Washington PostArchived from the original on 1 July 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2019. Trump has been fixated since early in his term on putting on a military-heavy parade or other celebration modeled on France’s Bastille Day celebration, which he attended in Paris in 2017.
  74. ^ Riding, Alan (15 July 2002). “Chirac Unhurt As Man Shoots At Him in Paris”The New York TimesISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 February2018.
  75. ^ “French youths burn 300 cars to mark Bastille Day”The Telegraph. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  76. ^ “Lorry attacks people on Bastile Day Celebrations”. 14 July 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article “Bastille Day”, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

New Simplified Buying Process

CountryReports has launched a newly improved way to obtain memberships. In addition, all products and memberships types have been simplified with one flat rate for all that we offer. The purchasing process is also mobile friendly for those using devices.

Customers can create their own invoices and now have more ways to pay. New ways include Apple Pay, Google Pay, Amazon Pay, Shop Pay, and PayPal. Previously only a major credit card or a manual check could be used.

Visit shop.countryreports.org to obtain a membership

shop.countryreports.org

Eiffel Tower, Paris France

Eiffel Tower, Paris France

Eiffel Tower – Description: EIFFEL TOWER, Paris

The Eiffel Tower was built for the 1889 Exposition Universelle, commemorating the 100th anniversary of the French Revolution. The Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII of England, opened the tower.

Of the 107 proposals in a competition, it was the design submitted by chief engineers (Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nouguier) from Gustave Eiffel’s company that was unanimously chosen, but not universally accepted. As construction began, artists (including Charles Gounod, Guy de Maupassant, Alexandre Dumas junior, Francois Coppee and Charles Garnier and many more) signed their names to the “Protest against the Tower of Monsieur Eiffel” and had it published in Le Temps newspaper. They were fearful that this “useless and monstrous,” “stupefying folly” would overshadow and bring dishonor to their beloved Paris.

Already known for engineering bridge supports (and for building the structure of The Statue of Liberty) Eiffel and his team were confident they could design something that would meet the 300 meter (1000 feet) mark, and architect Stephen Sauvestre was brought in to improve the project’s public appeal. Elements he added, like the large arches at the base, are what give this engineering marvel its stand out appearance. By the time construction was complete, The Eiffel Tower met enormous popular success—receiving two million visitors during the World Fair of 1889. Charles Gounod was, in time, a personal guest for coffee in Eiffel’s private apartment in the top of the tower.

At 300 meters (320.75m including antenna) and 7000 tons, it was the world’s tallest building until 1930. Up to 300 workers on site assembled the 18,000 iron pieces in just over two years. It took four men to install each of 2.5 million rivets: one to heat it up, one to hold it in place, one to shape the head and a fourth to beat it with a sledgehammer! Building “The Iron Lady” was a technical and architectural feat, boasting innovations in engineering and height. Construction was done in record time, new technology supplied the lifts and the lighting, and ground breaking work ensured the tower could withstand the effects of nature. Eiffel was fascinated with aerodynamics and built his tower to withstand the almost constant high winds that would barrage the top, resulting in just a 12 cm sway. (Weather also affects the height of the Eiffel Tower which can vary up to 15 cm as ambient temperatures cause the iron to expand and contract.)

Surprisingly, the Eiffel Tower was never meant to be permanent. The initial contest requirements included easily removing the structure at the end of a 20 year lease of the land. Ever the entrepreneur, Eiffel set about finding practical uses that would justify The Tower’s continued existence. He immediately installed a meteorological laboratory on the 3rd floor where he could pursue interests that included astronomy and physiology. The structure itself was outfitted with all kinds of instruments of scientific observation, including thermometers, barometers and manometers. He personally conducted experiments to study wind, gravity and electrical lighting. And he encouraged the scientific and physiological studies of others as well. Eiffel had the names of 72 French scientists engraved on the sides of the Tower. The names disappeared when the iron scaffolding received a new coat of paint, but half a century later they were restored and can be seen by visitors today.

The Tower also became an important tool for communications and broadcasting. Advances in telegraph, radio and then telecommunication technology were all hastened with the ability to use the tower as an enormous antenna. The world’s first wireless transmissions were made from a transmitter installed on the tower by Captain Ferre and the French military (with funding by Eiffel). When the military was able to intercept strategic enemy messages and stop spies (including Mata Hari) The Eiffel Tower was found indispensable.

Lighting has always played a role at The Tower. Its first night, the structure glowed with 10,000 gas street lamps and a colored beacon swept over Paris, rotating red, white and blue. From a thousand lightbulb chandelier to animated advertising to a colorful salute of rugby to beautiful presentations in celebration of its own birthdays, light bulbs and projection methods have changed and improved, but the lighting at The Eiffel Tower still continues to dazzle onlookers. After his daring flight from New York and across the Atlantic, Charles A. Lindbergh said it was the thousand lights on The Tower that illuminated his way to Paris.

Another interesting look through The Tower’s history might trace its relationship with time itself. In the beginning, Parisians could set their watches by the sound of a cannon fired from the Eiffel Tower every day at noon. In 1907, a giant clock was attached at the second floor level, with 20 foot high, luminous numbers the clock could be seen from quite a distance. In 1910, the structure was again an important instrument of science, when an international time organization used the Eiffel Tower to broadcast radio time signals, which would not just synchronize time around the globe but also make it possible to measure the exact position of longitudes. In 1933, a 20 meter wide clock was installed 200 meters up the tower—multicolored light rays, lit one after the other, indicated the movement of hours and minutes. A huge countdown clock hung on the Eiffel Tower to count down the remaining 1000 days to the year 2000 and the Millennium was celebrated with a fire and light show at The Tower that was broadcast all over the world.

There have now been over 250 million visitors to the Eiffel Tower, most of them not from France. Celebrities and people of renown from all over the world have come to admire the most visited monument you must pay to see. And people all over the world who can’t visit in person have probably seen the famous tower featured in a movie or represented in art.

Visitors will find plenty to do and see at The Tower. The first floor has undergone extensive renovation and now boasts a transparent floor 57 meters (187 feet) above the ground. There are also updated and comprehensive exhibits on this floor, many of them interactive. Head to the second floor for expansive views of Paris, then take the glass elevators 180 meters (more than 590 feet) to the top. Here, in addition to more incredible views, you can visit the newly restored office of Gustave Eiffel. There are restaurants and shops in the Tower and both permanent and temporary displays. In the winter there is ice-skating. Entertainment is frequent and sometimes spectacular. Special events have included competitions (climbing the stairs with everything from an elephant to motocross bikes), concerts, art exhibits, a ballet and more than one acrobat. Don’t miss sending a postcard from la Poste (on the first floor) with a unique Eiffel Tower postmark.

Iron can rust and painting the Iron Lady is a huge undertaking that occurs every seven years and can take 18 months. The Tower remains open to tourists as 25 painters (hanging from rigging) examine, strip and repaint the whole thing by hand. It takes 60 tons of paint and is shaded lighter towards the top so that the distance doesn’t change the color we perceive. A color which has changed over the years—first red, then yellow, and eventually various shades of brown. (Even then, lighting on and around The Tower has allowed it to glow most of the colors of the rainbow.) The current paint is a rich bronze and will help the Eiffel Tower be around for millions more visitors to appreciate over the years. – Location: Paris – Website: http://www.tour-eiffel.fr

The World Uses CountryReports

theworldletter2

While most customers of CountryReports are from North America, the world uses CountryReports as well.  Over 20 countries in the world have schools that use CountryReports.  Additionally, more than 20 countries have consumers who are tourists or travel on business and rely on CountryReports for information.

The image above is an example of the kind of mail CountryReports receives throughout the year.  The American School of Doha in Qatar is a customer of CountryReports.

New School Customer Give Praise

Sometimes it is nice to hear that your product is helping students.  Here is a comment from a new elementary school that used CountryReports for the first time today:

“I have now used Country Reports with our Third Grade and it was wonderful!  They were thrilled.  One student was upset that our class time was over.  He wanted to stay because the work was so fun.  Rarely have I had that reaction from students to a database.

Thank you for designing a database that teaches and excites.  And for a modest subscription price!  I am sold.”–  an Elementary School Media Center

People often ask what grade level is CountryReports made for.  We have strived to make it applicable to K-12 students.  Our school customer base is broken down in thirds, with about 1/3 from high schools, 1/3 from middle schools and the latter third from elementary schools which demonstrates the contents usefulness across the school spectrum of grades.

CountryReports:  Travel and Tourism Edition

CountryReports: Travel and Tourism Edition

CountryReports- Travel Edition Launched

Travel concept

CountryReports has launched a new product focused on travel and tourism.   The Travel Edition incorporates some of the content from CountryReports with extensive travel specific content added.   The travel edition is being launched available at no cost.  What’s inside?

  • Travel Maps
  • Weather
  • Photos/Videos
  • Travel news
  • Entry/Exit Requirements
  • Medical Information
  • Safety/Crime Data
  • Embassy information
  • Disability Access/Special Circumstances
  • etc

Check it out!  Click here.

CountryReports launches new enhanced content!

city map

CountryReports has published a significant amount of new content this month.  Members will enjoy enhancements to existing content and brand new content.

So what’s new?

  1. Create, Save and Download Customizable Comparison Graphs
  2. Videos that demonstrate culture and life within a country
  3. New interactive country maps and capital city maps
  4. Environmental issues
  5. Health and Medical information
  6. Crime Information
  7. National Defense
  8. Transportation Section
  9. Hurricane Maps
  10. Weather and Climate, etc….

Defense spending percent of GDP

Defense spending percent of GDP

Statue of Liberty

statue of libertyThe statue of “Liberty Enlightening the World” was initially a gift of friendship from the people of France to those in the United States. Lady Liberty has since fulfilled her deeper purpose. She is now recognized as a universal symbol of freedom and democracy—a beacon to oppressed people all over the world.

Edouard de Laboulaye first proposed honoring the United States with a monument in 1865. An ardent supporter of the “common law of free peoples,” Laboulaye hoped the Union victory in the American Civil War and the subsequent abolishment of slavery would inspire a French return to democracy. In 1875 the statue was given a name, Liberty Enlightening the World, and fundraising began. The French would finance the statue and the Americans would pay for the pedestal.

A financial crisis in the United States made fundraising difficult and in 1884 The American Committee for the Statue of Liberty ran out of money. Joseph Pulitzer, the publisher of the New York World newspaper, reminded subscribers that the common people of France had paid $250,000 for the statue and that his readers should not wait for millionaires to finance the American part of the project. In the next six months, about 125,000 readers donated over $100,000 ensuring that, even though the money came a dollar (or less) at a time, there would be a fitting pedestal for “a gift of the whole people of France to the whole people of America.”

Auguste Bartholdi was a sculptor and friend of Laboulaye. After visiting the Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza in Egypt, Bartholdi became excited about designing a colossal statue (of a robed woman holding a torch) as a lighthouse for the Suez Canal. Egypt never pursued the project, but Laboulaye easily transitioned his original concept into a monument of freedom for the United States.

Bartholdi saw New York harbor as the gateway to America and knew at first sight that Bedloe’s Island would be the perfect place for Lady Liberty to greet every ship that entered the harbor. Not just her designer, Bartholdi became a great advocate of the Statue. To elicit support and funds for the project, Bartholdi personally accompanied the massive arm and torch to the United States so they could be displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia.

The arm and torch were the first parts completed in 1876. Two years later, Lady Liberty’s head and shoulders were displayed at the Paris Universal Exposition. The entire Statue was completed in 1884. She was assembled in Paris and presented to the United States Ambassador in July of that year, then dismantled for an oversee voyage to her new home. Arriving in July of 1985, the pedestal was not yet ready and Lady Liberty had to wait over a year to greet her adoring crowds.

Bartholdi oversaw the Statue’s reassembly, beginning with Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel’s iron framework. (Eiffel would go on to build the Eiffel tower in Paris.) Next steam driven cranes hoisted materials and the pieces necessary for reconstruction. On October 28th, after receiving a key to the city, Bartholdi climbed the Statue to release the French flag that veiled Lady Liberty’s face. Guns, whistles and the applause of a million onlookers filled the air and the statue glistened brightly in the rain.

The pedestal rises from a 11-point star shaped platform, the remaining walls of a land battery used in the early 1800s. The Lady herself is 151 feet tall, but including the base and the pedestal, the statue stands 305 feet tall at the entrance of New York Harbor. Lady Liberty’s mouth is three feet wide. Her eyes are each two feet, six inches across. Her forefinger is eight feet long. Thirty one tons of copper cover a 125 ton framework in sheets not quite the thickness of two pennies. The green color is from a patina resulting from the copper’s exposure to the elements.

The Statue of Liberty’s crown has seven spikes which represent the seven seas and seven continents around the world. In her left arm, she holds a tablet inscribed in Roman numerals with the date July 4, 1776 – the date of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. In her raised right hand, she holds a beacon of light to welcome voyagers to America. Out of view by those on the ground, chains and a broken shackle lie at Lady Liberty’s feet and she is stepping forward with her left foot, indicating progress from bondage to freedom.

The original torch is now in the lobby. It was replaced in 1986 with a copper torch covered in 24k gold leaf that gleams in the sunlight of day or the floodlights at night.

In 1937, the island was turned over to the National Park Service and the next decades brought many improvements to the Statue’s surroundings. Dilapidated buildings (from the original Fort Wood) were removed. Trees, lawns and pathways were installed. By the time Bedloe became Liberty Island in 1956, visitors found her setting to be as lovely as the Lady herself.

A sonnet called The New Colossus was written by Emma Lazarus for a fundraising auction in 1883. Drawing from her work as an aide for Jewish immigrants and other refugees on Ward Island, Lazarus poem was deeply moving and immediately popular—appearing in both the New York World and the New York Times newspapers. Seventeen years after Lazarus’ death, a friend of hers found the sonnet in a book. Interest in the poem was renewed and it was eventually inscribed on a plaque and placed on the inner wall of the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. You may know bits of Lazarus’ sonnet by heart: Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free…

CountryReports

Eiffel Tower- France

eiffel tower

Eiffel Tower at sunset.

EIFFEL TOWER, Paris

The Eiffel Tower was built for the 1889 Exposition Universelle, commemorating the 100th anniversary of the French Revolution. The Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII of England, opened the tower.

Of the 107 proposals in a competition, it was the design submitted by chief engineers (Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nouguier) from Gustave Eiffel’s company that was unanimously chosen, but not universally accepted.  As construction began, artists (including Charles Gounod, Guy de Maupassant, Alexandre Dumas junior, Francois Coppee and Charles Garnier and many more) signed their names to the “Protest against the Tower of Monsieur Eiffel” and had it published in Le Temps newspaper.  They were fearful that this “useless and monstrous,” “stupefying folly” would overshadow and bring dishonor to their beloved Paris.

Already known for engineering bridge supports (and for building the structure of The Statue of Liberty) Eiffel and his team were confident they could design something that would meet the 300 meter (1000 feet) mark, and architect Stephen Sauvestre was brought in to improve the project’s public appeal.  Elements he added, like the large arches at the base, are what give this engineering marvel its stand out appearance.  By the time construction was complete, The Eiffel Tower met enormous popular success—receiving two million visitors during the World Fair of 1889.  Charles Gounod was, in time, a personal guest for coffee in Eiffel’s private apartment in the top of the tower.

At 300 meters (320.75m including antenna) and 7000 tons, it was the world’s tallest building until 1930. Up to 300 workers on site assembled the 18,000 iron pieces in just over two years.  It took four men to install each of 2.5 million rivets:  one to heat it up, one to hold it in place, one to shape the head and a fourth to beat it with a sledgehammer!  Building “The Iron Lady” was a technical and architectural feat, boasting innovations in engineering and height.  Construction was done in record time, new technology supplied the lifts and the lighting, and ground breaking work ensured the tower could withstand the effects of nature.  Eiffel was fascinated with aerodynamics and built his tower to withstand the almost constant high winds that would barrage the top, resulting in just a 12 cm sway.  (Weather also affects the height of the Eiffel Tower which can vary up to 15 cm as ambient temperatures cause the iron to expand and contract.)

Surprisingly, the Eiffel Tower was never meant to be permanent.  The initial contest requirements included easily removing the structure at the end of a 20 year lease of the land.  Ever the entrepreneur, Eiffel set about finding practical uses that would justify The Tower’s continued existence.  He immediately installed a meteorology laboratory on the 3rd floor where he could pursue interests that included astronomy and physiology.  The structure itself was outfitted with all kinds of instruments of scientific observation, including thermometers, barometers and manometers.  He personally conducted experiments to study wind and gravity and electrical lighting and he encouraged the scientific and physiological studies of others as well.

The Tower also became an important tool for communications and broadcasting.  Advances in telegraph, radio and then telecommunication technology were all hastened with the ability to use the tower as an enormous antenna.  The world’s first wireless transmissions were made from a transmitter installed on the tower by Captain Ferre and the French military (with funding by Eiffel).  When the military was able to intercept strategic enemy messages and stop spies (including Mata Hari) The Eiffel Tower was found indispensable.

Lighting has always played a role at The Tower.  Its first night, the structure glowed with 10,000 gas street lamps and a colored beacon swept over Paris, rotating red, white and blue.  From a thousand lightbulb chandelier to animated advertising to a colorful salute of rugby to beautiful presentations in celebration of its own birthdays, light bulbs and projection methods have changed and improved, but the lighting at The Eiffel Tower still continues to dazzle onlookers.  After his daring flight from New York and across the Atlantic, Charles A. Lindbergh said it was the thousand lights on The Tower that illuminated his way to Paris.

Another interesting look through The Tower’s history might trace its relationship with time itself.  In the beginning, Parisians could set their watches by the sound of a cannon fired from the Eiffel Tower every day at noon.  In 1907, a giant clock was attached at the second floor level, with 20 foot high, luminous numbers the clock could be seen from quite a distance.  In 1910, the structure was again an important instrument of science, when an international time organization used the Eiffel Tower to broadcast radio time signals, which would not just synchronize time around the globe but also make it possible to measure the exact position of longitudes.  In 1933, a 20 meter wide clock was installed 200 meters up the tower—multicolored light rays, lit one after the other, indicated the movement of hours and minutes.  A huge countdown clock hung on the Eiffel Tower to count down the remaining 1000 days to the year 2000 and the Millennium itself was celebrated with a fire and light show at The Tower that was broadcast all over the world.

There have now been over 250 million visitors to the Eiffel Tower, most of them not from France.  Celebrities and people of renown from all over the world have come to admire the most visited monument you must pay to see.  And people all over the world who can’t visit in person have probably seen the famous tower featured in a movie or represented in art.  There are restaurants and shops in the Tower and both permanent and temporary displays.  In the winter there is ice skating.  Entertainment is frequent and sometimes spectacular.  Special events have included competitions (climbing the stairs with everything from elephant feet to motocross bikes), concerts, art exhibits, a ballet and more than one acrobat.

Iron can rust and painting the Iron Lady is a huge undertaking that occurs every seven years and can take 18 months.  The Tower remains open to tourists as 25 painters (hanging from rigging) examine, strip and repaint the whole thing by hand.  It takes 60 tons of paint and is shaded lighter towards the top so that the distance doesn’t change the color we perceive.  The color itself has changed some over the years and is now a rich bronze.  The first floor has undergone extensive renovation and Eiffel’s office has been restored.  The Eiffel Tower will be around for millions more visitors to appreciate.

Country:  France

CountryReportsFrance

Russia Winter Games

red squarerussia flag

With Russia hosting the winter games, there are a few content areas within CountryReports that may be of interest.  For example, CountryReports has the national flag and national anthems for each of the world countries.  Want to understand what the flag symbolizes?  We have it.  Ever want to listen to a national anthem or sing along using lyrics?  We have that as well.

As for learning more about the host country Great Britain please visit our United Kingdom entry.  Useful links:

National Flags

National Anthems

Russia

Five Year Price Freeze

Schools across America are trying to manage budgets like never before.    We want to be part of the solution during these tight budgetary times.  CountryReports prices will once again remain the same for the duration of 2013.  This marks the fifth year without a rate increase.  Our mission is to provide quality content at an affordable rate.  If you are aware of schools struggling to maintain resources with dwindling budgets, send them our way.

Our annual content update is complete and we are ready for the new school year.  As always, we will continue to update content throughout the year.  We have some exciting new content areas that will launched soon.

We welcome back many of our school members that are returning from summer break.     Have a great school year!

Library